Marcel Hobma, [writing in the *Journal of Trial and Error*]( on the APC scourge:

> There is evidence that article processing costs give older, more resourceful male researchers and prestigious institutions an advantage over authors from developing countries and early-career authors that are not backed by strong institutions [...] this process can amplify certain publication biases that favour topics and viewpoints that are backed by rich organisations and industries, and therefore distort certain fields of research and possibly steer scientific research away from public interests.

The [piece]( is the best overview of the mounting evidence on the APC regime's exclusions and distortions.